M.I. Lisette Farah Simón*, Dr. Juan Alberto Adam Siade, Dr. Carlos Romo Fuentes, Dr. Saúl Daniel Santillán Gutiérrez, Dr. Jorge Alfredo Ferrer Pérez,
Dr. Alberto Ramírez Aguilar.
The development of space technology has caused a spread of pollution beyond the borders of the earth's surface, which in turn, has increasingly become a dormant threat to space exploration. The orbital zone around the Earth swarms with millions of pieces of man-made debris that create potential hazards for telescopes, pressurized equipment and live satellites, among others. There are several causes for this waste. For instance, we can point out the collision of a wide variety of solid objects in space, fuel tank explosions and meteorite impacts or satellite’s malfunction while in orbit. Space agencies all over the world have already started to create solutions to mitigate this problem in the Low Earth orbit (LEO). For it is in this orbital zone, that most of the orbital debris is gathered. This represents both a technical and a subsequent economical challenge. Therefore, after considering its major environmental impact, we must suggest a holistic approach for its solution. Technology Management is an industrial activity and an emerging field of education and research that has not been consistently defined yet. To accomplish such task, it’s required the identification of innovation processes that are involved in R&D projects in order to introduce the use of technology in products, industrial processes and other structural and functional areas of an organization. This knowledge is also used to establish comprehensive solutions to social and environmental problems. This work aims to present recent progress in the research field, with which we can develop approaches for a management model of technology that integrates sustainable strategies for decision making regarding the control and disposal of satellites at the end of its life-cycle. This model is based on the planning, evaluation, control, execution and implementation of satellite development processes, including those activities in the processes of design, manufacture, satellite services and general administration. This proposal suggests the analysis and assessment of the product’s life-cycle as a built in tool in the design process of satellites to identify markers that allow us to establish the sustainable characteristics needed to generate a comprehensive proposal for a management model of technology in Mexico. This will enable a linking between science, engineering processes and administrative disciplines, all of which converge in a model that considers the planning, development and implementation of all technological capabilities in research and Space development with a sustainable perspective.
Author: Dr. Jorge Alfredo Ferrer Perez Universidad Nacional Auto ́noma de M ́exico, Mexico, email@example.com
Dr. Carlos Romo Fuente, UNAM, Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org
Ms. Rafael Guadalupe Chavez, UNAM, Mexico, email@example.com
Dr. Alberto Ramirez Aguilar UNAM, Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org
Mr. Saul Santilllan- Gutierrez Facultad de Ingenier ́ıa-UNAM, Mexico, email@example.com
Space technology components need high specialized facilities to perform pre-certification and certifi- cation test for flight. These tests are expensive and their cost varies depending on the size and standard chosen to perform the tests. This restricts countries under development to design and to fabricate their space technology following a particular standard. This work presents a thermo-vacuum and propulsion test laboratory for pre-certification test, LPETE. This laboratory is located in Queretaro, Mexico and is part of several facilities considered by the National Laboratory of Space and Automotive Engineering. LPETE is a unique facility in Mexico and Central America to perform thermal-vacuum test following Mil- itary Standard and to foster research of space propulsion focused on Hall Thrusters for micro-satellites. The LPETE is formed by a cylindrical chamber 2m diameter times 3.5 m long with capabilities to admit micro satellites of 1 cubic meter of volume with solar panels extended. LPETE is part of a national effort to design, fabricate, test, lunch and operate original space technology developed by Mexican ex- perts. This initiative will nurture projects developed in Mexico to help the country to reach a technology independence on the space area.
Amanda Gomez1 CarlosDuarte2 Antonio Sansores-Sastre 3 MarinadeJ.KastenMonges 4 LuisGomez Aguilera 5 , Janeth Cruz Colmenates 5, Roberto Conte Galvan 6, Miguel Gonzalez 7 , Jorge Preciado Velasco 8, Veronica Rojas-Mendizabal 9, Jorge Kasten Monges10 , Igor Ramos 11, Arturo Serrano 12
1 Mexican Space Agency, Insurgentes sur 1685, Col Guadalupe Inn, Del. Alvaro Obregón, CDMX government development manager, firstname.lastname@example.org, 2.- Mexican Space Agency, , Insurgentes sur 1685, Col Guadalupe Inn, Del. Alvaro Obregón, CDMX Coordinator of human capital development in the space field, email@example.com, 3.- University of Guadalajara,, Epidemiology department , firstname.lastname@example.org, 4. Technological Institute of the Selva, Chiapas, email@example.com – 5.-Ministery of health in Chiapas, Telemedicine department, firstname.lastname@example.org, 6 Center fof Research Scientific and Higher Education of Ensenada, researcher satellite telecommunications, Ensenada Baja California, email@example.com, 7.- University of Guadalajara, Research in Geography department , firstname.lastname@example.org, 8.- Center fof Research Scientific and Higher Education of Ensenada, researcher in Applied Physics , Ensenada Baja California, email@example.com, 9 Center fof Research Scientific and Higher Education of Ensenada, PhD Student in telemedicine and telecommunications, Ensenada Baja California, firstname.lastname@example.org, 10.- University of Guadalajara, Agronomy Department, email@example.com, 11.-University of Guadalajara , Medical Faculty, coordinator of Education an Research, firstname.lastname@example.org, 12 .- Arturo Serrano Research and Scientific Center of Higher Education of Ensenada, Entailment Department , Ensenada Baja California email@example.com
Mexico is a country of socioeconomic divergences, Human Development Report figures vary from 0.830 in Mexico City to 0.667 in the state of Chiapas. Furthermore, the inequality condition of the country is a serious concern: 22% of the population is ranked above an HDR of 0.760, 30.3% goes from 0.742 to 0.765, 14.9% between 0.723 and 0.742 and an unfortunate 32.5% corresponds to the lowest level; oscillating between 0.667 to 0.720 including the states of Chiapas, Oaxaca and Guerrero. It has been reported that around 50% of the population is under socioeconomic disadvantage conditions. There are currently initiatives to improve the development indicators of the country. Two main detonators have been considered to accomplish this challenging task: education and promoting a long, healthy and comfortable life. We argue that outer space has the potential to become a significant vehicle contributing to improve the development condition of the country. Applications such as remote sensing, disaster management, tele-epidemiology platforms, alert systems for civil protecction and chemical threats and other meteorological, ecological instances play a crucial role as drivers to improving the quality of life of mexican citizens. Our proposal consists of the following initiatives: a] Development of free software platforms for comparing satellite images regarding remote sensing, floods, fire mitigation, water pollution and urban and rural mobility patterns; b] Use of Geographical information Systems [GIS] and data analytics; c] Development of an Electrocardiogram [EKG] proptotype with Tele-Health capabilities for diagnosis of cardiac alterations resulting from Chagas disease; d] Development of a Tele-Epidemiology project for health warning and detection in high risk areas affected by Dengue, Chikungunya, Chagas and Leishmania. This initiative includes Tele-diagnostics and mobile health capabilities; e] Development of a program for Health Distance Education in rural areas focused on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of vector borne diseases; f] Integration and adaptation of Open Source Health Information Systems for epidemiology data processing, statistical analysis and georeferencing; g] Integrate a working group as part of an ecosystem that includes medical specialists and information technology experts.
Ramirez Aguilar, J.A.a, Sanchez Hernandez, D.C. b, Romo Fuentes, C.c, Chavez Moreno, R.d, Santillan Gutiérrez S.D.e, Ferrer Perez J.A.f, Aparicio Estrada M.g a,c,d,e,f,g Department of Aero spatial, Unidad de Alta Tecnologia - F.I. UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro 260 Fray Antonio de Monroy e Hijar, Mexico, 76230, firstname.lastname@example.org
b Department of Telecommunication, Autonomous University of Queretaro - UAQ Av. De las Ciencias S/N, Juriquilla, Queretaro, Mexico, 76230, email@example.com
A few months ago, the Faculty of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) design and install along with an American company the first satellite earth station that has the following technical capabilities: reception of scientific data, images from the space, Telemetry, images of the earth from the satellite, tracking and command. Mexico is one of the countries that invests a lot of money to obtain satellite images of Mexican territory; this factor becomes more complex when you consider that in our country there are very poor ground infrastructure dedicated to the receipt of such images, Telemetry, command, etc. In the next few years, Mexico will have its own scientific microsatellite (Condor Scientific Microsatellite) and need to be prepared with the minimum infrastructure to control them effectively. The earth station operates in the S, X band and has a special X/Y type system, and its technical characteristics make it very attractive and cheaper than other stations. Its geographical location near the Ecuador makes it interesting for NASA and research institutions from Spain and Russia. This article presents the terrestrial infrastructure, features and examples of operation of the station. The earth station is part of the first Mexican national laboratory space of the engineering faculty of the UNAM achieved with support from CONACyT-UNAM.
Carlos Romo Fuentes, Ph.D., National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Querétaro, firstname.lastname@example.org
Jorge Alfredo Ferrer Pérez, Ph.D., National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Querétaro, email@example.com
Saúl Daniel Santillán Gutiérrez, Ph.D., National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Querétaro, firstname.lastname@example.org
José Alberto Ramírez Aguilar, Ph.D., National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Querétaro, email@example.com
Rafael Guadalupe Chávez Moreno, M.Eng., National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Querétaro, firstname.lastname@example.org
The project Quetzal was born for the need to have pollution monitoring for Mexican cities and Latin America territory in a daily basis. The project envisaged the development of a small satellite constellation for having more comprehensive information about pollution patterns in several cities of the region. The Project has been granted by the National Council of Science and Technology for a first stage of development. The funding has been used to obtained electronic equipment and instrumentation in order to integrate some of the satellite subsystems such as the attitude control, telecommunications and information handling and processing, as first proposals. The project not only has technical objectives but academicals as well, such as the integration of different groups of students at different levels, the creation of new subjects in academic programs, new infrastructure at the laboratories, the consolidation of the aerospace group in the High Technology Unit of the Engineering School of the University, at the Juriquilla Campus of the UNAM. As it is multidisciplinary project the efforts to gather and to identify the strengths in the different groups in the university has been a challenging labor for the collaboration not only in the UNAM but also there are colleagues in other institutions that would like to participate. The lessons learned and the first results of the project will be presented, as well as the efforts to establish the basic infrastructure we had to build in order to develop some of the subsystems, and the collaboration with the National Laboratory of Space and Automotive Engineering and the Thematic Network of Space Science and Technology of CONACYT.
Saul Daniel Santilan Gutierrez UNAM Facultad de Ingenieria UAT, Juriquilla, Queretaro Mexico email: email@example.com Monica Aparicio Estrada Monica UNAM Facultad de Ingenieria UAT, Juriquilla, Queretaro Mexico email: monica,ae@comunidad,unam.mx Jorge A. Ferrer Perez UNAM Facultad de Ingenieria UAT Juriquilla Queretaro Mexico email: firstname.lastname@example.org Chavez Carmona Rafael G UNAM Facultad de Ingenieria UAT Juriquilla, Queretaro,Mexico email: email@example.com Romo Fuentes Carlos UNAM Facultad de Ingenieria Juriquilla,QUeretaro Mexico UAT firstname.lastname@example.org Ramirez Aguilar Jose Alberto Alvar Saenz Otero Massachusetts Institute of Technology, SSL Department, Cambridge, MA, USA email: email@example.com
Whereas space debris removal has captured public imagination and several ideas are under research and development, such measures faces great challenges in technical complexity, cost and risk. Notwithstanding those factors, the constant ingress to our atmosphere of spacecraft debris and the extensive use of the LEO orbit would not allow space fairing nations to give up on them yet. This paper proposes the adoption of mitigation as a concept that should be incorporated earlier in the space missions, because technically and economically feasible measures are becoming a reality for recent developments for nanosatellites and small satellites in LEO Orbit. There are new technologies available in the navigation and propulsion systems that could offer in a near future a practical way for controlling the space debris generated by several missions. While cleaning the space is an issue that must be solved responsibly and cannot be ignored, we need to understand as a community that the removal of space debris requires resources that at the best are available, but have not been proven successfully yet, and the technical complexity and risk involved can make several missions unfeasible in the short term. The application of the concept of sustainable development techniques to space engineering is not straightforward, however it can provide different insights and open new venues for developing policies for the long term development of space technology as a sustainable resource. The concept of recycling has not meaning in the space area products, however, some concepts, like a planned product cycle introducing the concept for a planned disposal of the remains of a mission could make more sense now than few years ago. The present work is part of a research conducted at UNAM to find out how the concept of sustainable development could be adopted in a space mission, and develop one mission incorporating such concepts, at a reasonable cost.